JPSC

JHARKHAND

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JPSC Previous year question 5th Jpsc pre

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  • Jharkhand (“The land of forest”) is a state in eastern India,
  • created on 15 November 2000, from what was previously the southern half of Bihar.
  • The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east.
  • It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi).JPSC
  • It is the 15th largest state by area, and the 14th largest by population.
  • Hindi is the official language of the state.
  • The city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital. 

Introduction

FACT SHEET (Data As Per 2011 Census)
Population :32,988,134No. of Divisions :5
Male Population :16,930,315No. of Districts :24
Female Population :16,057,819No. of Sub divisions :38
Density of Population :414 persons / Sq. KMNo. of Blocks :264
National Highways :1844 KMsNo. of Villages :32620
State Highways :6880 KMsTotal Geographical Area :79.70 Lakh Hect

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State Animal

Elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)

State Bird

Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus)JPSC

State Tree

Saal (Shorea robusta)

State Flower

Palash (Butea monosperma)JPSC

Bird of the State

The region enshrouded in the hills and forests inaccessible to a large segment of people. The tribes of this state are living here from thousands of years and not much changed in their life and culture over the ages baring last few decades. JPSC

Many scholars now believe that the language used by tribes in the state of Jharkhand is identical to the one used by Harappan people. This has led to a great interest in the deciphering of Harappan inscriptions using rock paintings and language used by these tribes. For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained obscured. JPSC

During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states who controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. The region around Jharkhand was extremely rich in its mineral resources including iron and the janpad that controlled this region, Magadha, eventually controlled most of the country.

The power of Magadha continued to occupy central state in Indian subcontinent for a long time and saw the emergence of mighty empires such as Mauryas and Guptas. After the end of last big Hindu empire of Guptas, India saw emergence of a number of numerous regional powers who tried to control this region. JPSC

British

British identified this region as a great source of raw material for their booming industries back home and to exploit the region to its full potential, established a vast network of railway line. JPSC

Calcutta was developed as a major port to export raw materials from this region to England. Birsa Munda (1875-1900)and Sidho and Kanho are the legendary heroes of the tribals of this state who fought against the oppressive rule of the British government. Birsa Munda, now regarded as god, fought for the tribals natural right over forests and land that was mercilessly being acquired by the British for exploitation. JPSC

After a long fight, Birsa Munda was captured and died in prison. Sidho and Kanho were another set of revolutionaries.For a long time, Jharkhand remained as a part of Bihar, but after Indian independence, the demand for a separate state of tribals started gaining momentum. JPSC

In the last fifty years, the tribes of this region fought against the hegemony of Northern Bihar, a region that gained from the mineral deposits of this region like anything. Jharkhand became a state under the Republic of India on November 15, 2000. And now it is poised for a great leap forward.

Geography

Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered in forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.

Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones. Soil composition is further divided into: Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumri Telaiya, Barkagaon, JPSC

and areas around the Mandar hil Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad Black soil, found in Rajmahal area Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum JPSC

Climate

There are three seasons in Jharkhand. The cold-weather season, from November to February, is the most pleasant part of the year. High temperatures in Ranchi in December usually rise from about 50 °F (10 °C) into the low 70s F (low 20s C) daily. JPSC

The hot-weather season lasts from March to mid-June. May, the hottest month, is characterised by daily high temperatures in the upper 90s F (about 37 °C) and low temperatures in the mid-70s F (mid-20s C).

TOURISM

Hundru Fall

The Hundru Falls, is created on Subarnarekha River. where it falls from a height of 98 metres (322 ft) creating one of the highest water falls in the state. The spectacular scene of water falling from such a great height has been described as a sight to behold. JPSC

The different formations of rock due to the erosion by the constantly falling of water have added to the beauty of the place. It is 45 kilometres (28 mi) from Ranchi, off the Ranchi-Purulia Road. One has to travel some about 21 kilometres (13 mi) from the main road. JPSC

There is also a Shortcut and simple four-lane road from Ranchi via Ormanjhi via Sikidiri to Hundru. From this road the distance is about 39 kilometres (24 mi) which is about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) short from the normal road. JPSC

Jonha Fall

The Jonha Falls is 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Ranchi. It is approachable by both road and train. Jonha Station is just 1.5 km from the fall. For travel by road, one has to take the Ranchi-Purulia Road and after travelling for about 20 miles (32 km) one has to travel about 3 miles (4.8 km) off the main road.

Dassam Fall

The Dassam Falls is 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Ranchi on NH 33 or Ranchi-Jamshedpur highway.The Dassam Falls is a natural cascade across the Kanchi River, a tributary of the Subarnarekha River. The water falls from a height of 44 metres (144 ft). The sound of water echoes all around the place.

Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary

Netarhat

Known as ‘Queen of Chhotanagpur’ It is 145 km from Ranchi town by road. Netarhat is famous for its glorious sunrises and sunsets during the summer months. JPSC

Netarhat has several places of tourist interests including Magnolia Point (10 km from, ideal site for viewing sunset), Upper Ghaghri Falls (4 km from Netarhat), Lower Ghaghri Falls (10 km from Netarhat), Koel View Point (3 km from Netarhat), Lodh Falls (60 km from Netarhat, the highest waterfall in Jharkhand), Sadni Falls (35 km from Netarhat). JPSC

Rock Garden

Rock Garden is located in Ranchi town. Best place to spend holiday. There is a big lake, Kanke dam. JPSC

MINERALS

Jharkhand is endowed with vast natural resources specially the vast variety of minerals ranging from Iron ore, Coal, Copper ore, Mica, Bauxite, Fire clay, Graphite, Kyanite, Sillimanite, Lime stone, Uranium & other minerals.

Jharkhand is the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country. The total value of mineral production is Rs. 3000crores.

Jharkhand has large deposits of minerals. 40% of the total minerals of the country are available in the state. The state is the sole producer of cooking coal, Uranium and Pyrite.

It ranks first in the production of coal, mica, Kyanite and copper in India. The geological exploration and exploitation of gold, silver, base metals precious stones etc. are the potential areas of futures.

Jharkhand is no. 1 producer in Iron ore, Copper ores, Micca, Kainite, Uranium, Asbestus, etc. No. 3 in coal production after Odisha and Chattisgarh.

Availability of Minerals
MineralsQuantum (‘000t)Location/ Uses
Apatite3070Singhbhum/ Mineral Fertilizers,
Gem stones
Asbestos40Roroburu, Singhbhum/ Pipes, Sheets,
Gloves, Ropes
Barytes15Singhbhum/ Hydrated Alumina
Bauxite68135Palamu,Ranchi,Gumla,Lohardaga/
Alum,Aluminium,Refractory industry,Imery
China clay45930Lohardaga,Ranchi,Dumka,sahibganj,
Singhbhum/ Crockery,glass
Chromite334Singhbhum/ Chrome magnesite refractory
Coal6208485Jharia,Bokaro,Karanpura,Hutur,Auranga,
Daltonganj,Deoghar,Rajmahal Coal Fields
Cobalt(m.t)9.00Singhbhum/ Extraction of Cobalt Oxide
Copper Ore108690Singhbhum,Giridih/ Copper
Dolomite29864Palamu,Garhwa/ Cements,Magnesia,
Building Stone
Felspar5152Dumka,Hazaribagh,Deoghar/
Crockery Wares,Glazed Tiles,Refractories
Fireclay50462Dhanbad,Hazaribagh,Palamu,Bokaro,Giridh,
Ramgarh/ Firebricks,Stoneware crockeries
Garnet72Hazaribagh/ Beads,as gemstone
Gold Ore7.20Ranchi,Singhbhum/ Gold
Granite(‘000cm.m)19105Dumka,Godda,Deoghar,Ranchi,
DAltonganj/ Granite Tiles
Graphite389678Palamu/ Graphite powder,pencils,crucibles
Iron Ore308326Singhbhum,Palamu/ Iron
Kyanite90Singhbhum/ High Alumina Refractories
Limestone964917Hazaribag,Santhal Pragana,Palamu,
Singhbhum,Ranchi/ Lime,Fertilizer,Cement
Manganese Ore2363Singhbhum/ Manganese
Mica13554Koderma,Giridh,Hazaribagh/ Insulation
Bricks,Mica Powder
Nickel Ore9.00Singhbhum/ Nickel
Quartz(silica sand)136429Singhbhum,Dumka,Hazaribag,Deogarh,
Palamu,Sahidganj/ Glass,Crokery Ware,
Glaze,Acid Resistant Bricks and Tiles
Quarzite219842Singhbhum/ Same and Gemstone
Talc/ Stealite/
Soapstone
289Singhbhum,Giridh/ Talcom Powder,
Wall Tile,Electrical Insulators,Cookware
Vermiculate(t)15024Singhbhum/ Insulation Brick

INDUSTRIES

The new state of Jharkhand, widely acclaimed as the region of future, has enormous potentialities for industrialization. With its large deposits of minerals, it provides a solid launching pad for all kinds of industries.

With 40% of nations mineral reserves, the state government is committed to rapid development by leveraging the Location Advantage, combined with visionary Political Leadership and a proactive Industrial Policy.

Organisations like Industrial Area Development Authorities {Ranchi Industrial Area Development Authority (RIADA), Adityapur Industrial Area Development Authority (AIADA) & Bokaro Industrial Area Development Authority (BIADA)}, JPSC

State Khadi Board, Jharkhand Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation (JIIDCO) and JHARCRAFT are making significant contribution in industrialization of the State and are cash surplus. But desired progress in areas like IT, Biotechnology, Special Economic Zone (SEZ), Food Processing, Down Stream Processing etc is yet to be achieved.

Considerable progress in industrialisation has been during the policy period. As many as 26 mega industries, 106 large and medium industries and 18,109 micro and small industries have been set up in the State during the period with an approximate investment of Rs 28,424.06 crore and about 63,000 people

thus far got employment in these industries. It has contributed to the revenue collection of the State besides improving the quality of life in certain pockets like Jamshedpur-Saraikela-Chaibassa, Ramgarh-Patratu-Hazaribagh, Latehar-Chandwa, Ranchi-Lohardaga, Bokaro-Chandankiyari-Dhanbad-Giridih etc.

To ensure regular and mega investment, the State has been able to convince the ambassadors of industries to choose Jharkhand as preferred investment destination. Accordingly, major industrial houses have inked MoUs with the State Government. JPSC

Several bottlenecks and difficulties notwithstanding, the industries have been able to acquire about 8,000 acres of land through direct negotiation with raiyats. In addition the State Government has also been able to provide approximately 3000 acres of land to these industries including power units.

Mega industries

Around 17 mega industries have already come into production and several other industrial units are likely to start during the financial year 2011-12.

Steel production in the State has increased from 8 million tonnes (MT) to over 12 million tonnes per annum during the 11th Plan period. Jharkhand is presently producing about 20-25% of total steel in the country. With the proposed expansion of a number of integrated steel plants, the State will be producing over 25 MT of steel and

thus will turn to be a steel-hub of India. Similarly the production of alumina in the State has increased from about 80,000 metric tonnes to over 200,000 metric tonnes. Significant enhancement in cement and clinker production.

There has been a phenomenal growth in Sericulture Sector. A record growth in production of 716 metric tonne of Tasar Silk has been achieved during 2010-11 compared to the production of less than 100 metric tonne till 2006 and now approximately 1.25 lakh employment has been generated in the sector.

Growth in Mining and Quarrying has also been observed in the State. The output from this sector has increased from Rs 6523.4 crore in 2003-04 to Rs 10170.5 crore in 2009-10. JPSC

There has been almost three times growth in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of the State which is an indicator of its fast growth. GSDP of Jharkhand at current prices has increased from Rs 39191.09 crore in 2000-01 to about Rs 120010.20 crore in 2010-11. Similarly the per capita income of Jharkhand has also increased from Rs 14392 in 2001-02 to Rs 38350 in 2010-11.

However, there is a need to boost the economic activities to sustain the current level of growth and achieve even better pace of development. Since the State is endowed with rich mineral resources, its optimal utilization including value addition is essential for maximizing the benefit of local people.

There has been large scale change in industrial environment due to economic liberalization, privatization and globalization. Strong emphasis is on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME).

MSME

pollution norms have become more stringent, concept of ‘go’ and ‘no go’ zoning has been developed for mining clearances etc. Value Added Tax (VAT) regime and is likely take Goods and Service Tax (GST). JPSC

Enough of learning experience has been gathered from implementation of Jharkhand Industrial Policy 2001. Organisations like Industrial Area Development Authorities {Ranchi Industrial Area Development Authority (RIADA), Adityapur Industrial Area Development Authority (AIADA) & Bokaro Industrial Area Development Authority (BIADA)},

State Khadi Board, Jharkhand Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation (JIIDCO) and JHARCRAFT are making significant contribution in industrialization of the State and are cash surplus. But desired progress in areas like IT, Biotechnology, Special Economic Zone (SEZ), Food Processing, Down Stream Processing etc is yet to be achieved.

Further, investors trying to set up large / mega industries in the State are facing difficulties in acquisition of land. JPSC

Jharkhand ranks first in production of Tasar Silk in the country. In order to maintain the leading edge and rejuvenate existing rural industries including sericulture, handloom, handicraft, khadi, textile etc., it is envisaged to assist them in modernization/technological upgradation and provide necessary common facilities, backward and forward linkages including product design, marketing support etc. so as to make them globally competitive and their product remunerative.

The present policy aims at creating industry-friendly environment for maximizing investment especially in mineral and natural resource based industries, MSMEs, infrastructure development and rehabilitation of viable sick units. The objective here is to maximize the value addition to state’s natural resources by setting up industries across the state, generating revenue and creating employment.

In view of the above, this policy has been drafted after intensive interaction with representatives of industries, industry association, investors, subject experts etc and efforts have been made to accommodate their views. It is expected that implementation of the policy will facilitate industrialization of the State, generate employment and add to its overall growth.

SPORTS

Jaipal Singh Munda

Cricket, Hockey and football are popular games with the people of Jharkhand. Jharkhand has given some brilliant players like Jaipal Singh, a former Indian hockey captain and Olympian and Manohar Topno, Vimal Lakra, currently playing for the Indian Hockey team. Jaipal Singh was the captain of the hockey team that won the first gold medal for India in Olympic games 1928 at Amsterdam.

Mahendra Singh Dhoni who is the captain of Indian cricket team and the best wicket keeper batsman for India till date and led the Indian Cricket Team to ICC Cricket World Cup Glory on 2 April 2011 ending a 28-year wait to repeat the feat achieved by former Indian captain Kapil Dev in 1983 at Lords, England. Another rising cricketer from Jharkhand is Varun Aaron, India’s fastest bowler and

Saurabh Tiwary, left hand hard hitting batsman of India who represented Mumbai Indians from the 2008 Indian Premier League and currently playing for Royal Challengers Bangalore. He was one of the key batsmen in the Indian team that won the 2008 U/19 Cricket World Cup in Malaysia. Ashunta Lakra, sister of Vimal Lakra was the Indian Hockey Captain.

And one of the emerging sport personality is Deepika Kumari, a young athlete who competes in the event of Archery. She won gold medal in the 2010 Commonwealth games in the women’s individual recurve event.

Mahendra Singh Dhoni

Captain, Indian Cricket team. Under Dhoni’s captaincy, India won the 2011 World Cup. Dhoni is the only captain in the ODI history to score a century while batting at No.7. He did this against Pakistan on 30th December 2012.

Deepika Kumari – Archer

She won gold medal in the 2010 Commonwealth games in the women’s individual recurve event. She also won gold medal in the same competition in the women’s team recurve event along with Dola Banerjee and Bombayala Devi. Currently ranked World No. 2. She was conferred with Arjuna Award, India’s second highest sporting award in the year 2012 by President of India Pranab Mukherjee.

Premlata Agarwal

Premlata Agrawal (born 1963) is the first Indian woman to scale the Seven Summits, the seven highest continental peaks of the world.She was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2013 and Tenzing Norgay National Adventure Award in 2017 for her achievements in the field of Mountaineering.

On 20 May 2011, she became the oldest Indian woman to have scaled the world’s tallest peak, Mount Everest (29,029 ft.), at the age of 48 years at that time while Sangeeta Sindhi Bahl hailing from Jammu and Kashmir broke her record on 19 May 2018 and became the oldest Indian woman to scale Mount Everest doing it at the age of 53.She also became the first person from Jharkhand state to scale Mount Everest.

Laxmi Padiya

– International Boxer 9th Senior Women National Boxing Championships at St. John’s College, 2008 – Bronze 58th All India Police Women Boxing Championship, Pune, 2010 – Gold 11th Senior Women National Boxing Championships at Thrissur, 2010 – Silver 34th National Games (Women Boxing) 2011 at Jamshedpur, 2011 – Gold 60th All India Police Women Boxing Championship, 2012 – Gold.

FESTIVALS,

Having a vast cultural impact, Jharkhand is known for the host of festivals it celebrates. With its festive nature, the state puts some more colors on the vivid spiritual canvass of India. This state has a lot in terms of antiquity. The state celebrates all its festivals with full fun and frolic.

Around all the festivals celebrated in the country are enjoyed by Jharkhand. The festivals celebrated in the state show the marvelous presence of the cultural heritage of India in Jharkhand. The main attractions in this regard are the celebration of the Tribal festivals in Jharkhand.

These festivals are celebrated with full of vigour in the state. Some of the major Festivals of Jharkhand including Holi, Diwali, Ramnavami, Dussehra, Karma, Dussehra, Jitiya Bhaiya Dooj, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Fitr, Muharrum Jharkhand Festival are lined up below:

Sarhul

Sarhul is celebrated during spring season and the Saal trees get new flowers on their branches. It is a worship of the village deity who is considered to be the protector of the tribes. People sing and dance a lot when the new flowers appear.

The deities are worshiped with saal flowers. The village priest or Pahan fasts for a couple of days. In the early morning he takes a bath and puts on new a dhoti made of virgin cotton (kachha dhaga). The previous evening, the Pahan takes three new earthen pots and fills them with fresh water; the next morning he observes these earthen pots and water level inside.

If the water level decreases he predicts that there would be famine or less rain, and if the water level is normal, that is the signal of a good rain. Before pooja starts, the wife of the Pahan washes his feet and gets blessings from him.

At the pooja, Pahan offers three young roosters of different colors to one for the almighty god the Singbonga or Dharmesh, as the Mundas, Ho and Oraons respectively address Him; another for the village deities; and the third for the ancestors. During this pooja villagers surround the Sarna place.

Traditional drum ” Dhol, Nagara and Turhi” players keep drumming and playing along with Pahan chanting prayers to deities. When pooja is finished, boys carry Pahan on their shoulders and girls dancing ahead take him to his house where his wife welcomes him by washing his feet.

Then Pahan offers Saal flowers to her wife and villagers. These flowers represent the brotherhood and friendship among villagers and Pahan the priest, distributes saal flowers to every villager. He also puts saals flowers on every house’s roof which is called “phool khonsi”.

At the same time Prasad, a rice made beer called Handia, is distributed among the villagers. And the whole village celebrates with singing and dancing this festival of Sarhul. It goes on for weeks in this region of Chhotanagpur. In Kolhan region it is called “Baa Porob” meaning Flower Festival. it is the festival of the grest happiness.

Karam/ Karma

The Karam festival is a worship of Karam devta, the god of power, youth and youthfulness. Karam is held on the 11 of moon in Bhadra month. Groups of young villagers go to the jungle and collect wood, fruits and flowers.

These are required during the Puja of Karam God. During this period people sing and dance in groups. The entire valley seems to be dancing with the drumbeatth day of the phases. This is one of the rare examples of such a vital and vibrant youth festival in Jharkhand’s tribal area.

Jawa

At the same time, the unmarried tribal girls celebrate the Jawa festival, which has its own kind of songs and dance. This is held mainly for the expectation of good fertility and better household. The unmarried girls decorate a small basket with germinating seeds.

It is believed that the worship for good germination of the grains would increase the fertility. The girls offer green melons to the Karam deity as a symbol of ‘son’ which reveals the primitive expectation of human being (i.e., grains and children). The entire tribal area of Jharkhand becomes tipsy during this time.

Tusu Parab or Makar

This festival is mostly seen in the area between Bundu, Tamar and Raidih area of Jaharkhand. This belt has a great history during India’s independence movement. TUSU is a harvest festival held during the winter in the last day of Poush month.

It is also for the unmarried girls. Girls decorate a wooden/ bamboo frame with coloured paper and then gift it to the nearby hilly river. Although there is no documented history available on this festival but it has huge collection of scintillating songs full of life and taste. These songs reflect the simplicity and innocence of tribal people.

Hal Punhya

Hal punhya is a festival which begins with the fall of winter. The first day of Magh month, known as “Akhain Jatra” or “Hal Punhya”, considered as the beginning of ploughing. The farmers, to symbolize this auspicious morning plough two and half circles of their agricultural land this day is also considered as the symbol of good fortune.

Bhagta Parab

This festival comes between the period of spring and summer. Among the tribal people of Jharkhand, Bhagta Parab is best known as the worship of Budha Baba. People fast during the day and carry the bathing Pahan the priest, to the tribal mandir called Sarana Mandir.

The Pahan sometimes called Laya, gets out of the pond, the devotees make a chain, locking their thighs with each other and come forward to offer their bare chest to Laya for walk over. After worship in the evening, devotees take part in dynamic and vigorous Chhau dance with lots of gymnastic actions and masks.

The next day is full of primitive sports of bravery. The devotees pierce hooks on skin and get tied at one end of a long horizontal wooden pole, which is hanging on the top of a vertical Shal wood pole. The height goes up to 40 feet. The other end of the pole which is connected with a rope, pulled around the pole by the people and the tied devotee display the breath-taking dance in the sky. This festivals is more popular in the Tamar region of Jharkhand.

Rohini

Rohini is perhaps the first festival of Jharkhand. It is a festival of sowing seeds in the field. Farmers starts sowing seeds from this day but there is no dance or song like other tribal festivals but just a few rituals. There are some other festivals like Rajsawala Ambavati and Chitgomha are also celebrated with Rohini.

Bandna

Bandana is one of the most famous festivals celebrated during the black moon of month of Kartik (Kartik Aamavashya). This festival is mainly for the animals. Tribals are very close with animals and pets. In this festival, people wash, clean, paint, decorate feed well and put ornaments to their cows and bulls.

The song dedicated for this festival is called Ohira which is an acknowledgement for animal’s contribution in their day-to-day life. The belief behind this festival is animals are integral part of life and have souls as human being do.

The most exciting day of the bandanna week is the last day. Closured bulls and buffaloes are chained to a strong pole and they are attacked with a dry animal hyde. The angry animals hit the dry skin with their horns and the crowd enjoys. Generally the colour used for decorating animals are natural colours and the is artwork is of folk type.

Jani-Shikaar

This is held once every 12 years. The womenfolk wear menswear and go for hunting in forest. Jani-Shikaar is performed in remember of driving away the mohameddens by the kurukh womenfolk in Roh-tas-garh, who wanted to capture the fort on the Sharhul festival new year day for tribal community, when men used to be in drunken condition.

They had tried to capture 12 times in 12 years and every time they were driven by the kurukh women, who wore the men’s clothes while in the field of war.

Chhath Pooja

Chhath is an ancient Hindu festival and only Vedic Festival dedicated to the Hindu Sun God, Surya, also known as Surya Shashti.[1] The Chhath Puja is performed in order to thank Surya for sustaining life on earth and to request the granting of certain wishes.

The Sun, considered the god of energy and of the life-force, is worshiped during the Chhath festival to promote well-being, prosperity and progress. In Hinduism, Sun worship is believed to help cure a variety of diseases, including leprosy, and helps ensure the longevity and prosperity of family members, friends, and elders.

TRIBALS

The tribes of Jharkhand consist of 32 tribes inhabiting the Jharkhand state in India. The tribes in Jharkhand were originally classified on the basis of their cultural types by the Indian anthropologist, Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi. His classification was as follows:

  • Hunter-gatherer type — Birhor, Korwa, Hill Kharia
  • Shifting Agriculture — Sauria Paharia
  • Simple artisans — Mahli, Lohra, Karmali, Chik Baraik
  • Settled agriculturists — Santhal, Munda, Oraon, Ho, Bhumij, etc.

tribes

The Scheduled Tribe (ST) population of Jharkhand State is as per 2001 census 7,087,068 constituting 26.3 per cent of the total population (26,945,829) of the State. The Scheduled Tribes are primarily rural as 91.7per cent of them reside in villages.

District wise distribution of ST population shows that Gumla district has the highest proportion of STs (68.4per cent). The STs constitute more than half of the total population in Lohardaga and Pashchimi Singhbhum districts whereas Ranchi and Pakaur districts have 41.8 – 44.6 per cent tribal population. Kodarma district (0.8 percent) preceded by Chatra (3.8 per cent) has the lowest proportion of the STs Population. Jharkhand has 32 tribal groups:

  • Munda
  • Santhal
  • Oraon
  • Kharia
  • Gond
  • Kol
  • Kanwar
  • Savar
  • Asur
  • Baiga
  • Banjara
  • Bathudi
  • Bedia
  • Binjhia
  • Birhor
  • Birjiali
  • Chero
  • Chick-Baraik
  • Gorait
  • Ho
  • Karmali
  • Kharwar
  • Khond
  • Kisan
  • Kora
  • Korwa
  • Lohra
  • Mahli
  • Mal-Paharia
  • Parhaiya
  • Sauria-Paharia
  • Bhumij
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