The development of Indian national movement has three stages. first stage ( 1885-1905)second stage ( 1905-1918 ) final stage ( 1919-1947 ).
The growth and development of Indian national movement ( in brief )
# Indian national movement was the child of the british raj, and british authorities blessed its cradles:- R. coupland.
Nationalism is really only anti-colonialism:- A.D.Smith
The development of Indian national movement has three stages:–
- first stage ( 1885-1905)
- second stage ( 1905-1918 )
- final stage ( 1919-1947 )
# first stage :-
- the vision of INC was dim, vague and confused.
- the movement was confined to a handful of the educated middle class intelligentsia who drew inspiration from western liberal and radical thoughts.
# second stage:–
- the congress came of dim and scope were considerably extended.
- all round uplifts of the people — social,cultural,economic and political.
- swaraj or self government was the goal on the political front.
- adopted western revolutionary methods to liquidate western imperialism.
# final stage:–
- was dominated by the objective of purna swaraj or complete independence to be achieved under the leadership of mahatma Gandhi by method of non-violent and non-cooperation.
what were the factors favouring growth of Indian National Movement?
- impact of British rule.
- political unity of India.
- establishment of peace and administrative unification of India.
- development of rapid means of transport and communications.
- introduction of modern education.
- emergence of a modern press.
- rise of the middle class intelligentsia.
- influence of historical researchers.
- impact of contemporary European movements.
- progressive character of socio-religious reform movements.
- economic exploitation
- lord lyttons reactionary policies.
- the ilbert bill controversy.
# what were the causes of Indian nationalism?
- world-wide upsurge of the concepts of nationalism. french revolution
- the result of Indian renaissance.
- the off-shoot of modernization initiated by to British in India.
- a strong reaction to British imperial policies in India.
# Indian provinces were under direct British rule, Indian states were under Indirect British rule.
the british raj was like a steel frame to the injured body of india:- Edwyn Bevan.
# The drives behind planned development of transportation in india :–
- administrative convenience
- considerations of military defence
- urge for economic penetration
- commercial exploitation
# Railways may do for India what dynasties have never done:- Edwin Arnold.
Modern means of communications enabled contacts with one another and thus promoted the cause of Nationalism.
# who celebrated in Calcutta, the establishment of a constitutional government in Spain :- Raja ram mohan ray ,1821.
# The remedial measuresof raja ram mohan ray are as follows :-
- liberty of the press
- codification of law
- appointment of Indians in civil courts and higher posts.
# The first political associations of raja ram mohan ray was in 1836, Bangabhasa Prakasika Sabha.
Landholders society or Zamindary association in 1838.
# Landholders society and Bengal British India society merged into a new named called :- British India Association , 29th Oct, 1851.
Indian league was founded by Sisir Kumar ghosh in sep, 1875.
# Indian Association was founded by Anand mohan Bose and Surendrnath Banerjee on 26th july , 1876.
# Indian Association became popular than British India association due to the subscription charge of rs 5 to rs 50 of British India association.
A regulation of 1876 reduced the maximum age for appearing in the Indian civil examination from 21 to 19 years by :- Lord Lytton.
# Indian civil service agitation was done by :- Surendranath Banerjee.
Political associations in Bombay presidency :–
- Bombay association in 26 august, 1852.
- Bombay Presidency association in 1885 by Mehta, Telang and Tyabji.
- Poona sarvajanik sabha in 1867.
# Political associations in Madras presidency :-
- Madras native association , a branch of British India association.
- Madras mahajan sabha in may , 1884.
# East india association was founded in london in oct, 1866.
Licence Tax :- 1878 ” Indian National Movement”
# Abolition of cotton duties :- 1879
# The organisation which came together to mark Ripons departure from India in Nov-DEC, 1884.
- Indian association
- british india association
- national mohammedan association
- indian union
Indian national conference :-
- the first meeting of Indian national conference was on Dec, 1883, president was Anand mohan bose.
- second conference was held at Calcutta in 1885.
# who said that INC was made as a safety-valve to stop the growing unrest in the country :- Lala Lajpat Rai
what is called the child of both England and India :- Indian National Congress.
# W.C.Banerjee was the first president of INC in 1885 at Bombay.
period of moderate politics, tea-party or political mendicancy was :- 1885-1905.
# moderate leaders :-
- dadabhai naorgi
- p.m. mehta
# the political outlook of moderate leaders were :-
- believers in the spirit of liberalism.
- to produce for Indians freedom from race and creed prejudices.
- equality between man and women
- extension of civil liberties
- extension of representative institutions
# Pherozeshah mehta said, ” the congress was indeed not the voice of the masses, but it was the duty of their compatriots to interpret their grievances and offer suggestions for their redress”.
A British committee of the INC was setup in London which published a weekly journal :- India
# the United Indian patriotic Association was formed to counter Congress propaganda by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Raja Seo Prasad of Banaras.
# who said a microscopic minority to the Congress — Lord duffrin.
A big jump into the unknown—– Lord Duffrin.
# Congress was tottering to its fall…….Lord Curzon.
to assist it to a peaceful demise —– Lord Curzon.
# moderate leaders were called old guard.
Also known as political mendicancy. “Indian National Movement”
# Welby Commission on Indian expenditure in 1895.
The drain theory was popularized by Dada Bhai Naoroji, Dutt and wacha.
# the greatest service of the moderate leaders was:–
- When they are assessed the economic impact of British rule on India.
- Public attention of Indian Poverty.
- This poverty was due to the colonial exploitation of India’s economic resources by British.
# the process of split in the Congress begin when Tilak clashed with the moderates over the question of social reforms.
Tilak and his group ousted Ranade and Gokhale from the control of Poona Sarvajanik Sabha.
# the Deccan Sabha was formed by GK Gokhale.
apology affair is related to GK Gokhale over the charges against the plague commissioner.
# causes for the rise of extremism.
- Recognition of the true nature of British rule.
- Reaction to increasing westernization.
- Dissatisfaction with the achievement of the Congress.
- Deteriorating economic condition of India.
- Contemporary international influences.
- Curzon’s reactionary
# Congress a place hunting politicians—- Bankim chandra chatterjee.
Congress was dying of consumption—- Arvind Ghose.
# A series of articles new lamps for old was written by —- Aurbindo Ghose.
Britain was bleeding India white was called —– Dada bhai Naoroji.
# India’s poverty and unbritish rule in India by— dada bhai Naoroji.
Indian economics —– Ranade.
# economic history of India — R C Dutt
# India for Indians was called by —- Dayanand.
political Mendicancy were 3 Ps —– prayer, petition and protest.
# Tilak described Congress as “ Congress of flatters” and Congress session as “A holiday recreation”.
Lala Lajpat Rai said the annual national festival of educated Indians to the Congress.
# Tilak said we will not achieve any success in our labour if we croak once a year like a frog.
bubonic plague 1899-1900 in Maharashtra
# Tilak said plague is less cruel to us than the official measures.
which Viceroy rule was known as missions omissions and commissions…. Lord Curzon.
# delhi durbar ….1903.
# the two extremist groups were:- political form
- The formation of the extremist group within the Congress.
- The growth of terrorism or Revolutionary Movement in the country at large.
# the extremist programs of action where:-
- Boycott of foreign goods
- Swadesh goods
- National education
- Passive resistance
# the original Idea behind boycott of British goods was to help getting the partition of Bengal annulled.
# A National scheme of education during the Bengal partition.
- Guru das Banerjee headed the Bengal council of national education.
- Bengal National College at Calcutta.
- Pachaiappa National College Madras.
- D.A.V movement in Punjab.
# Tilak consumption of swaraj ment some sort of self government while Aurbindo conception of swaraj meant complete independence.
# the main focus of the extremist in Indian politics where:–
- To get a larger share for Indians in the administration of their country.
- To end Britain’s economic exploitation of India.
# the extremist transformed Patriotism from an academic pastime to service and suffering for the nation.
the age of consent bill was proposed to raise the age of Consummation of marriage for girls from 10 to 12 Years by—— Tilak
# INC decided to support British war effort , both as :-
- A matter of duty and
- In a spirit of bargaining to get concessions.
# Home Rule League at Poona by Tilak. “Indian National Movement”
# Home Rule League at Madras by Annie Besant.
motive of Home Rule League was to achieve self government for India and by educating the people and to get support and strength of a nation United in knowledge of itself and its single aim.
# the home leagues functioned independently as the Congress could not adopt a radical programme as that.
the reunion of Congress became possible due to the death of GK Gokhale and Firoz Shah Mehta in 1915.
# Tilak and Annie Besant dominated the Lucknow session of Congress.
the Congress League pact of 1916 for acceptance of United scheme of constitutional reform.
# 19 memorandum is associated with pact of 1916 the Congress League scheme.
persuasion , popularized by the moderates and low-grade pressure advocated by the extremists.
# Sedition committee report , 1918.
Chitpavan brahmin , B.G Tilak.
# Home rule society by Krishnavarma dhamki in 1905.
India home society was also known as India house in London.
# members of India house :-
- V.D Sawarkar
- Madan lal dhingra
# Mitra Mela Association formed by Savarkar which later became Abhinav Bharat after Mazzini, young Italy.
Grave warming pamphlet was distributed by Savarkar.
# Revolutionary case of Western India Maharashtra.
- The rand murder at Pune in 1897 by Chapa kar brothers.
- Murder of William Curzon wiley in 1909 by Madan Lal Dhingra.
- Murder of Jackson District Magistrate of Nashik.
- Ahmedabad bomb case in 1909.
- The Satara conspiracy in 1910.
# Revolutionary Movement in Bengal:-
- Anushilan Samiti by P Mitra.
# the publication of barindra Kumar Ghosh:-
- Bhawani Mandir 1905
- Vartaman rananiti
- Mukti kon pathe
# Alipore Conspiracy Case is associated with Ghosh brothers Aurobindo and barindra.
Narendra Gosain approver of Alipore Conspiracy Case.
# Lala Lajpat Rai and Ajit Singh where arrested in the Chenab Canal case and bari doab. “Indian National Movement”
Gadar party was formed in San Francisco in USA in 1913.
# Indian Independence committee was founded by hardayal in Berlin, Germany.
komagata Maru landed in Budge Budge Calcutta on 27 September 1914.
# unleased repressive legislation to meet Revolutionary activities.
- The prevention of seditious meeting act 1907.
- The explosive substance act 1908.
- The criminal law amendment act 1908.
- The newspaper in incitement to offence act 1908.
- The Press Act 1910.
- Defence of India rules 1915. ( the obnoxious multi-fanged ).
# A meeting of revolutionaries from all part of India was called at Kanpur in October 1924.
HRA in 1924.
# HSRA in sep, 1928.
3 fold objective of Hindustan socialist Republic Association were :-
- To arouse the consciousness of the people of India to the futility of the Ghandian methods of non-violence.
- To demonstrate the need and desirability of direct action and revolution in order to achieve complete Independence.
- Ideological inspired by the Russian Revolution and socialist thought.
# the association hoped to substitute of British imperialism in India by a federated Republic of The United States of India.
Kakori train dacoity on 9th August 1925.
# Surya Sen masterminded the Chittagong armory raid in April 1930.
political sufferers day on 18th August 1929 by All India Congress Committee.
# Non-cooperation :- 1 August, 1920.
At Nagpur session December 1920 the Congress approved the policy of non violent and non cooperation.
the new Congress constitution was adopted in Nagpur session.
# the Khilafat committee and the Congress agreed upon the triple purpose:-
- Satisfactory solution off khilafat question.
- Redressal of Punjab wrong.
- Attainment of Swaraj.
# 4 stages of non cooperation by the Khilafat committee on 6 June 1920.
- Resignation of titles and honorary post.
- Resignation from Civil Services under the government.
- Resignation from police and army services.
- Non payment of taxes.
# seven program of non cooperation by Indian National Congress.
- Surrender of titles and honorary officers.
- Refusal to attend government Darbar and official functions.
- Boycott of government or government aided schools and colleges.
- Boycott of British courts.
- Refusal of all classes to offer themselves for service in Mesopotamia.
- Boycott of elections to provincial and Central Assembly Elections.
- Boycott of foreign goods.
non cooperation was stopped due to the incident of Chaura-chauri on 5th February 1922.
Nehru report 1928 :- which advocated a constitution based on the principle of responsible government for India on the lines of self governing Dominions within the British Empire.
at its Lahore session (29-31) December 1929 the Congress adopted the resolution of complete Independence for India.
civil disobedience movement in 1930.
- On 12th march , 1930.
- With 78 followers
- From sabarmati to Dandi.
# the difference between the non cooperation movement and civil disobedience movement are:-
- Non cooperation movement: It sought to bring the working of government to a stand still by not cooperating with the administration.
- Civil disobedience movement:- its aim was paralyzing the Administration by performance of specific illegal acts.
Subhash Chandra Bose compared Gandhi’s March to napoleon’s March to Paris on his return from Elba.
Gandhi Irwin pact , 5th march 1931.
civil disobedience movement was stopped because Viceroy declared that Dominion status was the goal of India’s constitutional development.
Unsatisfied with the government India’s policies the Congress ministers resigned in October 1939.
August offer 1940 :- proposing the expansion of the viceroy’s executive Council to constitute it as our Advisory Council for the purpose of associating Indians in the task of the persecution of the war.
who said that Atlantic charter did not apply to India and that he had not become the prime minister of England to preside over the liquidation of the British Empire — Churchil.
Cripps offer in March 1942.
# who said cripps offer as a post dated cheque and failing Bank —– M. Gandhi
Quit India Movement in 1942 August.
the rest of Gandhi on 9th August 1942.
# the Quit India Resolution on 14th July 1942.
in 1944 Gandhi was released and Quit India Resolution was withdrawn.
the representatives of the Congress and the Muslim League at a conference at Shimla in June 1945 was called by —– Lord wavell.
cabinet mission 1946 Lawrence, cripps and Alexander.
# Muslim League observed direct action day on 16 August 1946.
# attlee announcement on 20 February 1947.
the grateful Indian nation and its tribute to Gandhiji’s memory through the resolution passed by the Indian Parliament on 24th December 1969.
# all India forward bloc meeting was held on Nagpur in 1940 June.
on January 1942 Subhash Chandra Bose began his regular broadcast from radio Berlin.
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HISTORY OF BIHAR
बिहार की प्राचीन इतिहास के नाम से ही प्रकट हो जाती है। Indian National Movement
वस्तुतः बिहार शब्द बिहार का तद्भव है जिसका अर्थ है मठ अर्थात भिक्षु का निवास स्थान।
विदेह राजा जनक इसी साम्राज्य के सर्वाधिक यशस्वी सम्राट हुए कहा जाता है कि तत्कालीन भारत में मिथिला सर्वाधिक सुसंस्कृत एवं सभ्य राज था।
GEOGRAPHY OF BIHAR
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बिहार का क्षेत्र फल संपूर्ण भारत का 2.86% है।
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देश के कुल चावल का लगभग 15% उत्पादन करने वाला यह राज्य चावल उत्पादन की दृष्टि से देश में पश्चिम बंगाल के बाद दूसरा स्थान रखता है।
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