Administrative System , Architecture and Literature of Delhi Sultanate
The sultan was the head and the source of all power and authority in Delhi Sultanate
By Shree Samrendra
The sultanate of Delhi was a theocracy.
- All the sources were made to protect and spread of Islam .
- Moto was , to turn Dar-ul-harb (infidel) into Dar-ul-Islam (muslim) land .
Administrative organization consisted of :-
- The khalifa
- The sultan
- The Nobel’s
- The ministers
- Wazir (primeminister)
OFFICIAL OF THE Delhi Sultanate KINGDOM WERE :-
- Minister for foreign affairs
- Was a diplomatic correspondence
# Sadar-i-sudur and Diwan-i-Qazi
- Inforces islamic rules
- Incharge of money to give to muslim divines , scholar and men of piety
- Dealt with royal correspondence
- Order of sultan was drafted by him
- Was called the Treasury secret
- Diwan-i-khas presided over this department and was assisted by number of Dabirs .
- Head of the state news agency
- Collected information from the state
- Controlled the entire household of the palace
- Supervised the payment of allowances to personal staff of sultan.
- Ariz-i-Mamalik was the head of ministry of war
- Responsible for maintaining the Army in a state of emergency .
- Was called the source of the livelihood of the fighters for the faith
- Head of the military organization
- Lord lieutenant of the realm
- He commanded the kings bodyguard such as :-
- Amir-i-Akhur ( master of horse )
- Shahnan-i-pilan ( superintendent of elephants )
- Amir-i-shikar ( hunting )
- Officials and non-officials together were called Arkan-i-Daulat
# FINANCE in Delhi sultanate :-
- Sultanate had two sources of revenue
- Religious ( only from muslims )
# Zakat :- Religious tax
- Was payable in gold , silver , herds , merchandise.
- When assessed on value or weight was 1/40th of the property
- Zakat could only be levied on owners property for at least 1 year .
- 50% on horses , If non-muslims than double.
- Sikandar Lodhi abolished zakat on grains .
# Kharaj :-
- Tax on land ( to non-muslims )
- 1/10th to one-half
# Jizya :-
- Was a poll-tax charged from non-muslims
- Not levied on women , children , monks , beggars , blind & crippled , not even brahmans .
- Only during Firuz shah Tugalaq it was levied on brahmins .
- Brahmins were levied 10 Tanka’s of 50 jitals
- Entire hindu population was divided into 3 grades .
1st grade paid 48 Dirhams . 2nd grade paid 24 D , 3rd grade paid 12 D .
# Ghanimah :-
- Spoils of war
- 1/5th was kept with the state and left was distributed to the soldiers .
# Khams :- share of the state , dying muslim property without heirs belonged to the state but dying hindu property was distributed into the community, if no heir .
# LAND REVENUE in Delhi sultanate:-
- Main source of income
- It was divided into 4 kinds of land .
# Khalisa territory :-
- Land was divided into Iqtas .
- It was directly administered by Central government.
- State dealt only with local revenue officer and not individual peasants .
# Iqtas :-
- Were held by Muqtis .
- The assessment & collection of revenue in the Iqtas was in the hands of Muqtis .
# Amil :-
- Was a revenue clerk .
- Collected tax from peasants .
# Khwaja :-
- Sultan appointed an officer in each Iqta to supervise the collection of revenue and put a check on Muqti . “Delhi Sultanate”
# Wakf land or Inam land , was free from revenue assessment.
# ALA-UD-DIN KHILJI Made Changes in REVENUE ADMINISTRATION :-
- Confiscated the lands held by muslim grantees and religious land held as Milk , Inam Idarat & Wakf .
- Hindi Muquaddams , Khuts , Chaudaris were made to pay taxes .
- State demand was increased to one half of the produce .
- Also imposed house and grazing tax on peasants .
- Later sher shah suri lowered to 1/3rd of the produce .
# FIRUZ TUGALAQ :-
- Cancelled the Taqavi loans .
- Increased the salary of revenue staff.
- Only levied 5 taxes Kharaj , Khams ,Zakat , Jizya & Irrigation tax.
- Constructed many canals and sank wells . “Delhi Sultanate”
- Charged 10% for water Irrigation . For waste land 1/5th .
# MUHAMMAD TUGALAQ :-
- Increased the state demand to 50% in Doab .
- Also created a new department of agriculture known as Diwan-i-kohi .
- Under Md Tugalaq
- Was to bring new areas under cultivation and to improve the existing crops .
# Jazzari :-
- Levied on butchers at 12 Jitals per head .
# ARMY :-
The army consisted of :-
- Regular soldiers permanently employed in the service of the sultan .
- Troops permanently employed in the service of provincial governors & nobles .
- Recruits employed in times of war.
- Muslim volunteers enlisted for fighting a holy war of Jihad .
- Hashm-i-Qalb :- troops of the sultan in Delhi.
- Khasah khail :- troops in the service of the sultan included Royal slaves , Jandars and Afwaj-i-Qalb .
- Diwan-i-Ariz :- In times of war , the troops maintained by the nobels and governor.
- Payaks :- the foot soldiers
- Dhanush :- Archers
- Shahna-i-Fil :- elephant officer
The Army was organised on a decimal basis :-
- A Sar-i-khail had 10 horseman .
- A Sipah-salar had 10 Sar-i-khails under him
- An Amir had 10 Sipah-salar under him
- A Malik had 10 Amir under him
- A khan had 10 Malik under him
The credit of creating a standing Army goes to ALA-UD-DIN KHILJI and it continued till FIRUZ TUGALAQ.
# JUSTICE :-
- Sultan dispersed justice through Diwan-i-Qaza .
- Also through the agency of Diwan-i-Mazalim
- Diwan-i-siyasat was made by Md Tugalaq for justice system.
- The Diwan-i-Mazalim was presided over by the Amir-i-Dad , only when sultan was not present in person .
- Governor were helped by Sahib-i-Diwan and the Qazi .
- Courts of mazalim heard complaints against officers.
- Diwan-i-Qaza , look after Civil litigation.
- Mazalim , dealt with administrative law .
- Head of Diwan-i-Qaza was Qazi-i-Mamlik ( Qazi-ul-Qazat ).
- Ibn batuta was appointed the Qazi of delhi by Md Tugalaq and was called “ our lord and master “.
- Amir-i-Dad looked after the decision of Qazi .
# POLICE :-
- Police duties were performed by Kotwal .
- Their jurisdiction was only in rural areas .
- Iqtas was a military command and under Muqti
- Under ALA-UD-DIN KHILJI there were 3 kind of provincie
- Old Iqtas
- New conquered provinces ( controlled by military governor called Walis ) “Delhi Sultanate”
- Belonged to the principalities of the hindu vassals who were reduced to the position of governor.
- Delhi sultanate had 23 provinces , such as Badaun , Bihar , Delhi , Dwara samudra , Gujarat , Jhasi , Jajnagar , Kalanaur , kara , kuhram , Lahore , Lakhnauti , Malabar , Malwa , Multan , Oudh , Samara , Sehwan , Sirsuti , Telang and Uch .
# GOVERNOR :-
- required to protect & enforce the laws , customs , & regulations
- He looked after Ulema , warriors and civil official
Governor of Sindh was Fateh khan appointed by FIRUZ TUGALAQ , he supervised Diwan-i-wazarat .
- Also called Khwaja
- Appointed by sultan , recommended by Wazir
- Was an expert Accountant
- In 14th century provinces was divided into Shiqs
- In 13th here was no lower unit of administration than Iqtas .
- Md Tugalaq divided Deccan into 4 Shiqs .
- Shiqdar was head of Shiq , a military officer of law & order .
Sadi :- collection of 100 Villages .
Architecture and Literature of Delhi Sultanate :-
# Salient features of the architecture during Sultanate period :-
- Mixture of Indian & Iranian styles , basically they adopted Indian style because , the builders were indian and they were constructed out of the temples broken during the war . eg , Quwat-ul-Islam.
- Pointed Arch , Narrow & high towers , use of Domes .eg Tomb of Gayasuddin and Qutub minar
- New style of place of Worship , by desecrating the temples and building mosques
Eg , Quwat-ul-Islam , Adai-din-ka-jhopra (Ajmer ) .
- Tombs of new style , Octagonal tombs during FIRUZ TUGALAQ , sayyids and lodhis .
- Stones and good quality lime was used .
- Scientific construction, adopted from Byzantines Empire . Arabs were the first to adopt .
- Decorating building , human and animal figure were not used but flowers, leaves and geometrical designs were used .
#Development of Architecture during Sultanate period :-
# Slave Dynasty :- Qutubuddin Aibak
- Qutub Minar
- Tomb of Iltutamish
- Sultan Ghar
- Tomb of Balban
# Quwwat-ul-Islam :-
- Constructed by Qutubuddin Aibak
- In 1195-1199 ” Delhi Sultanate “
- It has great Maksura , connected to Kibla Diwan
# Qutub Minar :-
- By Aibak
- Was completed by Iltutamish
- 71.4 m (225 feet )
- Made of Redstone
- Iltutamish constructed in memory of sufi saint Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki
# Tomb of Iltutamish :-
- It has square chamber
# Sultan Ghar :-
- Built in 1231-32 AD
- Material used is grey granite
# Adai-din-ka-jhopra :-
- In 1200 AD
- By Aibak
- At Ajmer
# KHILJI Dynasty :- Turkish style
- Siri village
- Alai Darwaza
- Hauz khas
- Jamaat khana mosque
# Siri village :-
- By Alauddin khilji
- In 1303
- Zia-ud-din Barni called it naya nagar
# Alai Darwaza :-
- Near Qutub minar
- By Alauddin khilji
- Red stone and Marble
- It has square hall and single Dome
# Hauz Khas :-
- Tank , near Siri village
- Also known as Hauz-i-Allai
- Area is 70 acres
- Later cleaned by FIRUZ TUGALAQ in 1354 AD
# Jamaat khana mosque :-
- By Alauddin khilji
- Near Dargah of Nizamuddin Aulia
- Nasiruddin Mahmud , eldest son of Iltutamish is burried here
- Fully built in muslim ideas with Redstone “Delhi Sultanate”
- Originally was a Tomb of shaikh Nizamuddin Aulia .
# TUGALAQ Dynasty :-
GAYASUDDIN TUGALAQ :-
- City and fort of Tughlaqabad ( east if Qutub Minar )
- Huge Artificial Lake ( by the water of River Jamuna )
- Tomb of Gayasuddin Tugalaq ( made of Red stone and on top of dome there is a pitcher in Hindu style ).
Muhammad Tugalaq :-
- Small fortress of Adilabad ( near Tughlaqabad )
- City of Jahan Panah ( after transferring capital to Daulatabad this city was made between Rai pithora and Siri .
FIRUZ TUGALAQ :-
- Important cities , Firozabad , Fatehabad , Hissar , Jaunpur
- Madarsa , Hauz-khas , Kotla Firozashah
- Mosques , Kali Masjid ,( Khidki masjid , Begumpuri masjid in JahanBanaha ), Kala masjid in Shahjahanabad .
- Tomb of Firozashah
- wazir Khan-i-Jahan Telangini ( at south of Dargah of Nizamuddin Aulia).
- Tomb of Kabruddin Aulia (also known as Lal Gumbad )
#. Sayyid Dynasty :-
- It can be called an unsuccessful imitation of the khilji buildings because of lack of financial resources .
- City of Khizrabad ( by khirz khan ) and Mubarakabad ( by Mubarakshah )
- Tomb of Sultan Mubarakshah ( in village of mubarakpur )
- Tomb of Muhammad Shah .
# Lodhi Dynasty :-
Mixture of Tughlaq and Turkish
- Tomb of Sikander lodhi ( in lodhi gardens 1517 AD , by Ibrahim Lodhi ).
- Mosque , Moti ki Masjid built by Wazir of Sikander lodhi .
- Tombs of Nobel’s , Bare khan , chote khan , Bara Gumbad , Shish Gumbad , Shaihab-ud-din ,Taj khan , Dadi ka Gumbad and Poti ka Gumbad .
# Provincial Architecture :–
- A mosque built by Muhammad-bin-Kasim
- Shrines of Shah Yusuf Gardizi , 1152 AD
- Baha-ul-Haqq , 1262 AD
- Shams-ua-Din ( Shams-i-Tabrizi ) , 1276 AD
- Tomb of Shadna Shahid
- Tomb of Rukh-i-Alam by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ( most splendid memories ever erected in honour of the dead ) , 1320-1324 .
- Tomb and mosque of Zafar khan Ghazi ( Tribeni , Hughli )
- Adina masjid ( wonder of the east ) by Sikandar Shah in 1358-89
- Mosque and Minar at Chota Pandua ( hughli )
- Akhil Siraj-ud-Din at Gaur by Sikandar Shah .
- Ek lakhi Tomb ( Pandua ) , Tomb of Jala-ud-din Muhammad Shah , son of Raja kans .
- Sath Gumbad mosque in 1459 AD
- Dakhil Darwaza by Barbak Shah 1459-74 made of brick and terracotta.
- Tanti para masjid ( Gaur )
- Lotan Masjid ( yusuf shah ) in 1474-81 , built in the model of Ek lakhi Tomb
- Firuza Minar at Gaur
- Qadam Rasul Mosque
- Chhota sona masjid ( small golden mosque ) , the Bara sona masjid ( great golden Mosque) built by Husain Shah in 1493-1552 AD .
- Was most beautiful of all provincial Architecture .
- Jain temple , 1032 AD
- City of Ahmedabad by Ahmed Shah in first half of 15th century.
- Tin Darwaja ( triple gateway )
- Tomb of Darya khan in 1453 in Persian style
- Champanir ( Jama masjid ) bh Mahmud Begra
- Mosque of Rani Sipari in 1514 AD
- Mosque of Sidi Sayyid
- Tomb of Mandani during the reign of Zain-ul-Abidin , 1420-1470.
- Jami masjid at Srinagar by Sikandar but later on expanded by Zain-ul-Abidin.
- Mosque of shah Hanadan ( srinagar ) is built of timber .
- Bhojsala Mosque , earlier sanskrit college
- Mandu Fortress
- Jami masjid at Mandu by Husband but finished by Mahmud khilji
- Mosque of Dilawar khan Ghori
- Adina masjid ( Pandua )
- Tomb of Husband ( first Tomb , wholly white marble )
- Palaces of Baz Bahadur and Rupmati
- Masjid and fort of Ibrahim Main Barbak in 1376 & 1377
- Atala masjid built in reign of Ibrahim shah sharqi in 1408
- Jhanjhri masjid in 1425 by Ibrahim in honour of Hazrat said sadr Jahan Ajmali .
- Lal Darwaza 1440-1456 AD
- Jama masjid 1478 in reign of Husain shah
- Hauz-i-Shami and Shamsi-Idgah and Jami masjid in Badaun was built by Iltutamish.
- Idgah (village Rapri , up ) in 1311 during Alauddin khilji
- Chaurasi Gumbaz ( up , kalpi ) resting place of one of Lodhi dynasty.
- Hazara temple by Krishna deb Raya
- Vitthala temple
- Jain stambh at Chittor
- Kirti Stambh or Jaya Stambh of Rana Kumbha
BAHMANI KINGDOM :-
- Mosque of Gulbarga and Bidar
- Tomb of Md Adil Shah ( Gole Gumbaz ) ottoman influence.
# LITERATURE :-
- Brahmasiddhanta and Khanada Khandyaka was written by Brahma gupta .
- Al-baruni came India with Mahmud and was an accomplished sanskrit scholar .
- Dalayal Firuz Shah was a sanskrit manuscript translated into Persian by FIRUZ TUGALAQ.
# Amir Khusrau :-
- Born at patiali in 1253
- Took service under price Muhammad Khan , son of Balban
- Was a disciple of Shaikh Nizamuddin Aulia
- First muslim writer to use hindu words
- Important writing are , Khazyan-ul-Futuh , Tughluqnama , Tarikh-i-Alai
- The patronage from Balban ti Gayasuddin Tugalaq
# Amir Hasan Dehlwi :-
- Is described aa Musical and most pleasing
- Was in court of Muhammad Tughlaq
- Composed a Diwan and wrote the memoirs of Shaikh Nizamuddin Aulia
# Badr-ud-din or Badri-i-Chach :-
- Was a native of Taskhand
- In court of Muhammad Tughlaq
# Minhaj-us-Siraj :-
- Author of Tabqat-i-Naisiri
# Zia-ud-din Barni :-
- Author of Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi
- Was patronised by Muhammad Tughlaq and FIRUZ TUGALAQ
- Shams-i-Siraj Afif continued the Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi of Berni .
# Ain-ul-Mulk Multani :-
- Was under MD Tughlaq, Firuz Tughlaq, Alauddin khilji.
- Important writing are Ain-ul-Mulk and Munsrat-i-Mahru ( Inshai-i-Mahru )
- His writing gives us information about the political social and religious conditions.
# Ghulam Yahya bin Ahmad :-
- Author of tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi, this book corrects and supplements Minhaj-us-Siraj and Zia-Ud-din burni and shams-i-Siraj of Afif.
# Futuhus-Salatin by Isami :-
- Has written history of 300 years.
# Hasan Nizami :-
# Qazi Shihab-ud-din Daulatabadi :-
- Author of Hawash-i-Kufiah Irshad and Bat-ul-Bayan.
# Maulana Shaikh Ilahabad :-
- Has written on Hedaya
Hindu writer :–
# Ramanuja :-
- Comment on Brahma sutras
- explained his conception of bhakti
# Parthasarthi Misra :-
- Sastra Dipika
# Deva Suri :-
- Jain logician of 12th century
# Jayadeva :-
- Gita Govinda ( poetry )
- Prasanna Raghava ( Drama )
# Drama :-
- Harkeli Nataka, Lalitavi-graha Nataka written in 12th century.
- Hammir-mada-mardana by Jaya singh suri
- Pradyamna-Bhydaya by Ravi-varman
- Pratap Rudra kalyan by Vidyanath
- Parvati Parinaya by Vamana Bhatta Bana
- Gangadas Pratap vilas by Gangadhara
- Lalita Madhava by Rupa-goswami
- Jiva Goswami written in Sanskrit
- Mitakshara by vigyaneshwar is a commentry on Yajnavalkya . ( commentary on Hindu law of this country for many centuries )
- Dayabhaga by Jimuta Vahan
- Rajtarangini by kalhan , History of Kashmir
- Sayana , commentary on Vedas
- Siva-Gama stotra by Madhava
- Pampa Ramayana by Naga Chandra ( Abhinava pampa )
# Bhaskara-Acharya :-
- Born in 1114 AD
- Study of Astronomy promoted
# Jain writers :-
- Prabha Chandra
- Hasti malla
- Sakal akriti
# Vernacular literature :-
- Prithviraj Raso by Chandra bardai.
- Alhakhand by Jagnayak , ( contains deeds of love and war of Alha and Udal , two brave Warriors of parmala of Mahoba )
- Hammir Rasau and Hammir Kavya by Sarang dhara , ( contents the account of glories of Raja Hamir of Ranthambore ).
- Ashiqa ( poem ) by Khusrau .
# Bhakti movement ( Literature ):-
- Granth by Namdev in Hindi
- Hymns by RAMANANDA
- Sakhis and Damini by kabir.
- Marzi Mehta poet of Gujarat
- Suarochisa Mancharitra by Allasani Peddana.
- Krittivasa , prepared Bengali translation of Ramayana from Sanskrit. It is the Bible of gangetic Valley.
- Amukta-Malyada by K D Raya ,his poet Laureate was Allasani Peddana.
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झारखंड की जनजातियां
झारखंड के 32 प्रकार के अनुसूचित जनजातियों निवास करती है। इन्हें दो वर्गों में विभाजित किया गया है।
जनजाति एवं आदिम जनजाति जनजातियों के नाम हैं।
असुर, बंजारा, बिरहोर, बैगा, भूमिज, हो, करमाली, कांवर, खड़िया, खरवार, किसान, कौल, मुंडा, लोहरा, माल पहाड़िया, संथाल, सुरैया पहाड़िया
जनजातीय सामाजिक व्यवस्था
जनजातीय समाज कई गोत्र अथवा कूटों में बड़ा संगठन है।
जिससे जानवर पक्षी वृक्ष या पदार्थ पर उनका गोत्र का नाम रहता है। वह उस गोत्र धारक के लिए आदर की वस्तु समझी जाती है।
अपने गोत्र या कूट में विवाह करना वर्जित है। संतान को पिता का गोत्र मिलता है। विवाह के उपरांत लड़की अपने पति का गोत्र धारण करती है।
जनजातीय समाज एवं संस्कृति
जनजातियों की सामाजिक एवं सांस्कृतिक व्यवस्था दुरुस्त वनांचल क्षेत्रों में हुई थी जब इनका वह संस्कृतियों से संपर्क नहीं हुआ था तब इनकी जीवन शैली है।
सामूहिक ता पर आधारित थी परंतु आज उनकी सामाजिक आर्थिक व्यवस्था पहले के समान सरल नहीं रह गई है।
परिवर्तन के बीच भी जनजातीय समाज के लोग अपनी सामाजिक सांस्कृतिक परंपराओं को दृढ़ता से पालन कर रहे हैं।
झारखंड की जनजातियां आज पांच अवस्था में पड़ी हुई हैं।
प्रथम वर्ग में बिरहोर खड़िया आदि जनजाति दुर्गम क्षेत्रों में निवास करती है। और पूरी तरह वन उत्पादों पर ही निर्भर है।
दूसरे वर्ग में कोरवा सरैया पहाड़िया है। जो जंगल जरा करके तैयार करते हैं।
तीसरे वर्ग में उड़ाओ मुंडा संथाल आदि हैं। जो स्थाई कृषि तथा पशु पालन पर निर्भर हैं। और उत्पादन की अर्थव्यवस्था से जुड़े हुए हैं।
चौथे वर्ग में कर माली माली आदि हैं। जो जीविका के लिए ग्रह उद्योगों पर आश्रित हैं।
पांचवा वर्ग नगरों में निवास करते हैं। उनकी जीवनशैली भी आम शहरी तरह की ही है। परंतु अपनी सांस्कृतिक पहचान से बनाए हुए हैं।
जनजातियों के लिए अपनी संस्कृति की विशिष्टता तथा अस्मिता का विशेष महत्व है।